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Cynoglossus bilineatus  (Lacepde, 1802)

Fourlined tonguesole
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Cynoglossus bilineatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Cynoglossus bilineatus (Fourlined tonguesole)
Cynoglossus bilineatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae (Tonguefishes) > Cynoglossinae
Etymology: Cynoglossus: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 10 - 400 m (Ref. 11441).   Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 44.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2872)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 107-113; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 80 - 88. Eyed side brown with an irregular dark blotch on gill cover, blind side white. Blind side with 2 lateral lines (dorsal and medial). Body elongate, its depth 22 to 29% SL. Eyes with a small scaly interorbital space. Snout rounded. Rostral hook short. Corner of mouth reaching posteriorly beyond lower eye, nearer to gill opening than to tip of snout. Caudal-fin rays usually 12. Midlateral-line scales 88 to 96. Scales ctenoid on eyed side of body. Cycloid on blind side. Scale rows between lateral lines on eyed side of body 13 to 16 (Ref 9895).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 11441), off Pakistan, the west coast of India and Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, and the north and east coasts of Australia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in coastal areas and estuaries. May ascend upstream into the freshwater tidal zone of the Mekong (Ref. 12693). Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of continental shelves. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 3391). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 3391). Marketed fresh in the Mekong delta (Ref. 12693).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Menon, A.G.K., 1977. A systematic monograph of the tongue soles of the genus Cynoglossus Hamilton-Buchanan (Pisces: Cynoglossidae). Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (238):1-129.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01510 (-0.18744 - 0.21764), b=2.94 (2.83 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 2,223-225,557).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.